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Thursday, March 23, 2017

MLA Stylesheet

 

MLA Format for Individual Entries

Documentation, even according to a specific format such as MLA or APA, is not an exact science. It will often be necessary to read the descriptions for the kinds of sources available and determine for yourself how to cite a source most appropriately. If you need help at any time, please ask one of the librarians.

It will sometimes be necessary to combine formats for traditional and electronic sources. Please read all the instructions and examples to decide which is best for you.

Directions and samples for electronic sources begin on page 6.

Directions and samples for References in Text begin on page 10.

Look for the description that best matches your source, and follow that pattern. Additional instructions will appear in all small capital letters. The sample forms themselves appear in a typewriter-like font.

Note: Any information about formatting your work on the computer refers to Microsoft Word.

1. The Works Cited page appears in your paper after all the pages of text in the body. On this page, you will list all the complete information about each of your sources, and you will list each one once only.

 

2. Make sure that your spacing is set to double-space.

 

3. At the top of the page, center and type the words

Works Cited and then press enter once.

 

4. On the menu bar, select

FORMAT, and then PARAGRAPH. In the second group of choices (INDENTATION) look for the word SPECIAL on the right side, and click the arrow. From the choices that drop down, select HANGING.

 

a. All the entries on your

Works Cited page need to be typed in a style called hanging indention. This means that the first line of each entry will be at the left margin, but all the others will be indented five spaces.

 

5. Now, as you begin to type your entries, be sure that they are all in alphabetical order by the first word. Your first word is probably an author’s last name, but it may be the first word in a title. If the first word is

A, An, or The, ignore it and alphabetize by the next word.

 

6. Everything is double-spaced. Don’t type an extra line between entries.

 

7. NEVER EVER number the entries on your

Works Cited page.

 

8. Don’t separate them by type of source (such as book, website, and so on.)

General Rules

Put the titles of chapters, articles, or stories in quotation marks.

Underline the titles of complete works.

 

Put all dates in this format: 16 Mar. 1986. Use three letter abbreviations for the name of each month, followed by a period. Do not abbreviate May, June, or July.

 

Give the author’s name as it appears on the title page. Do not abbreviate.

 

If the work is anonymous, or no author is listed, simply leave it out and begin with the title, and alphabetize according to the title.

 

If more than one city is listed on the title page for publication, use the first one.

 

If the information is incomplete, use these abbreviations:

 

o

n.p. for no place of publication given

o

n.d. for no date of publication given

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Book by a single author or editor

1.

BEGIN WITH THE AUTHORS NAME, IF GIVEN., LAST NAME FIRST, THEN FIRST NAME, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD. IF THE AUTHOR IS DESCRIBED ON THE TITLE PAGE AS THE EDITOR OF THE BOOK, WRITE HIS NAME THIS WAY: Kirsch, Arthur C., ed.

 

2.

FOLLOW THIS WITH THE TITLE OF THE BOOK, UNDERLINED, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

3.

FOLLOW THIS WITH THE PLACE OF PUBLICATION. INCLUDE THE CITY AND STATE (USE THE TWO LETTER STATE ABBREVIATION) UNLESS THE CITY IS A MAJOR CITY, LIKE NEW YORK, OR A WORLD CAPITOL CITY. FOLLOW THIS WITH A COLON.

 

4.

PUT IN THE NAME OF THE PUBLISHER OF THE BOOK, FOLLOWED BY A COMMA.

 

5.

PUT IN THE YEAR IN WHICH THE BOOK WAS COPYRIGHTED.

Kirsch, Arthur C. Dryden’s Heroic Drama. New York: Crowell, 1984.

Book by two or three authors or editors

1.

FOLLOW THE DIRECTIONS FOR BOOK BY A SINGLE AUTHOR, BUT INCLUDE THE NAMES OF BOTH (OR ALL THREE) OF THE AUTHORS IN THE SAME ORDER IN WHICH THEY APPEARED ON THE TITLE PAGE.

Howard, John and Arthur Mendel. Religion and the University. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1964.

Book by more than three authors

1.

GIVE THE NAME OF THE FIRST AUTHOR LISTED ON THE TITLE PAGE ONLY, FOLLOWED BY THE WORDS et al.

Green, Leonard, et al. Our Contemporary Composers. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Two (or more) books written by the same author

1.

GIVE THE NAME IN THE FIRST ENTRY ONLY, AND FOLLOW WITH THE OTHERS, REPLACING THE AUTHORS NAME WITH THREE HYPHENS.

 

2.

LIST THE ENTRIES FOR THE SAME AUTHOR ALPHABETICALLY BY TITLE.

Green, Leonard, et al. Our Contemporary Composers. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991.

---. Symphonies for All Time. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1986.

Book by a corporate author

1.

GIVE THE NAME OF THE COMPANY OR ORGANIZATION LISTED ON THE TITLE PAGE AS IF IT WERE THE NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF THE BOOK.

2.

FOLLOW THE FORMAT FOR BOOK BY A SINGLE AUTHOR FOR THE REST OF IT.

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American Psychological Association. Publication Manual. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2001.

Article, essay, or story in a collection or anthology with an editor

1.

BEGIN WITH THE AUTHORS NAME, IF GIVEN.

 

2.

FOLLOW THIS WITH THE TITLE OF THE ARTICLE, ESSAY, OR STORY IN QUOTATION MARKS.

 

3.

UNDERLINE THE TITLE OF THE ANTHOLOGY OR COLLECTION.

 

4.

IF THE NAME OF AN EDITOR OR TRANSLATOR IS GIVEN, INCLUDE THAT AFTER THE TITLE OF THE FULL WORK, ALONG WITH THE APPROPRIATE ABBREVIATION (ED. FOR EDITOR, TRANS. FOR TRANSLATOR, ETC.)

 

5.

INCLUDE THE PAGES ON WHICH THE ARTICLE OR STORY APPEARS WITHIN THE BOOK.

Cervantes, Miguel. "Pedro, the Artful Dodger." Eight Spanish Plays of the Golden Age. Ed. and Trans. Walter Starkie. New York: Modern Library, 1964. 99-164.

Article in a reference book

1.

IF THE ARTICLE IS SIGNED, USE THE AUTHORS NAME FIRST.

 

2.

IF THE ARTICLE IS NOT SIGNED, BEGIN WITH THE TITLE OF THE ARTICLE.

 

3.

INCLUDE THE EDITION INFORMATION BEFORE THE PUBLICATION INFORMATION.

 

4.

IF YOURE USING A REFERENCE WORK THAT HAS MORE THAN ONE VOLUME, INCLUDE THIS INFORMATION AFTER THE TITLE AND EDITION INFORMATION, BUT BEFORE THE PUBLICATION INFORMATION.

Here are three examples:

Carr, Leonard. "Nuclear Energy." Encyclopedia of the Environment. 1997 ed. New York: Collier Press, 1997.

"Digital Photography." Encyclopedia of Technology. 2nd ed. Los Angeles, CA: Millard, 2004.

"Animation." The Encyclopedia of Modern Art. 3rd ed. 4 vols. Chicago: Hare Press, 1999.

Article in a magazine

1.

FOLLOW THE SAME PATTERNS FOR AUTHORS AND TITLES.

 

2.

INCLUDE DATE OF THE ISSUE OF THE MAGAZINE.

 

3.

INCLUDE STARTING AND ENDING PAGE NUMBERS FOR THE ARTICLE.

Sheed, Will. "The Good Old Days." Atlantic Magazine 10 Sep. 1968: 48-63.

Article in a newspaper

1.

OMIT A, AN, OR THE IN THE TITLE OF THE NEWSPAPER. (New York Yimes, NOT The New York Times.)

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2.

IF THE ARTICLE IS AN EDITORIAL OR A LETTER, INSERT THE WORD Editorial OR Letter AFTER THE TITLE OF THE ARTICLE.

 

3.

IF THE CITY OF PUBLICATION DOES NOT APPEAR IN THE NEWSPAPERS TITLE, ADD IT IN BRACKETS. ([Denver] Post, NOT Post)

 

4.

FOR NATIONALLY PUBLISHED NEWSPAPERS (SUCH AS The Wall Street Journal), DO NOT INCLUDE A CITY OF PUBLICATION.

Gottfried, John. "Newark Playgrounds Close for the Summer." [Newark] Star-Ledger 8 Aug 1989, sec.1: 3.

Government publication

1.

USE AS THE AUTHOR THE NAME OF THE GOVERNMENT THAT CREATED THE WORK

 

2.

FOLLOW THIS WITH THE AGENCY WITHIN THE GOVERNMENT THAT WAS RESPONSIBLE.

 

3.

FOLLOW THIS WITH THE TITLE INFORMATION.

 

4.

YOU MAY USE THE ABBREVIATION GPO TO STAND FOR GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, THE PUBLISHER FOR THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT.

United States. Congressional Committee on the Investigation of the Assassination of John F. Kennedy. Report of the Warren Commission. Washington, DC: GPO, 1966.

Review of a Book or Film

1.

BEGIN WITH THE NAME OF THE REVIEWER.

 

2.

THE TITLE OF THE REVIEW, IF A TITLE IS GIVEN.

 

3.

WRITE THE ABBREVIATION Rev. of. DO NOT PUT THIS IN QUOTATIONS. DO NOT UNDERLINE IT.

 

4.

THE TITLE OF THE WORK THAT HAS BEEN REVIEWED, FOLLOWED BY A COMMA.

 

5.

THE WORD by (IF THE WORK BEING REVIEWED IS A BOOK).

 

6.

USE THE ABBREVIATION dir. FOR DIRECTOR IS THE WORK BEING REVIEWED IS A FILM.

 

7.

THE NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF THE WORK THAT IS BEING REVIEWED.

 

8.

THE NAME OF THE PERIODICAL IN WHICH THE REVIEW APPEARED (OR THE WEBSITE ON WHICH IT APPEARED) ALONG WITH THE COMPLETE INFORMATION FOR THAT SOURCE.

Rozen, Leah. "Spring Fling." Rev. of Fever Pitch, dir. Peter and Bobby Farrelly. People 18 Apr. 2005: 31.

Personal Interview

1.

BEGIN WITH THE NAME OF THE PERSON INTERVIEWED, LAST NAME FIRST.

 

2.

FOLLOW THIS WITH A DESCRIPTION OF THE KIND OF INTERVIEW THAT TOOK PLACE. CHOOSE FROM

 

a. Personal interview

 

b. Telephone interview

 

c. E-mail interview

 

3.

FOLLOW THIS WITH THE DATE OF THE INTERVIEW.

Panella, Elizabeth. Personal interview. 12 Apr 2005.

Lecture or speech

1.

BEGIN WITH THE SPEAKERS NAME.

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2.

FOLLOW WITH THE TITLE OF THE SPEECH OR PRESENTATION, IF AVAILABLE, IN QUOTATION MARKS. (IF THERE IS NO ACTUAL TITLE, USE ONE OF THESE DESCRIPTIVE LABELS: lecture, speech, reading)

 

3.

THE NAME OF THE MEETING OR SCHOOL OR SPONSORING ORGANIZATION, IF AVAILABLE.

 

4.

THE LOCATION OF THE PRESENTATION.

 

5.

THE DATE.

Watson, Bruce. "Budget." Fair Lawn Board of Education. Fair Lawn High School. 11 Apr. 2005.

Audio recording (music or spoken word)

1.

BEGIN WITH THE NAME OF THE INDIVIDUAL WHOSE CONTRIBUTION TO THE RECORDING IS THE MOST IMPORTANT TO THE CONTEXT OF YOUR WORK, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

a.

IF YOU ARE WRITING ABOUT A COMPOSER, BEGIN WITH THAT INDIVIDUALS NAME.

 

b.

IF YOU ARE WRITING ABOUT A PERFORMER, BEGIN WITH THAT INDIVIDUALS NAME.

 

2.

GIVE THE TITLE OF THE INDIVIDUAL SONG OR TRACK, IF APPROPRIATE, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

3.

GIVE THE TITLE OF THE RECORDING NEXT, UNDERLINED, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

4.

GIVE THE NAME OF THE ARTIST(S) OF THE WORK, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

5.

GIVE THE NAME OF THE MANUFACTURER OF THE WORK, IF AVAILABLE, FOLLOWED BY A COMMA.

 

6.

GIVE THE YEAR IN WHICH THE RECORDING WAS ISSUED, IF KNOWN. IF UNKNOWN, USE THE ABBREVIATION n.d. FOR NO DATE.

 

7.

GIVE THE MEDIUM IN WHICH YOU HAVE USED THE RECORDING. DO NOT UNDERLINE THIS OR ENCLOSE IT IN QUOTATION MARKS. USE THESE INDICATORS:

 

a. Audiocassette

 

b.

LP (FOR A LONG-PLAYING PHONOGRAPH RECORD)

 

c.

CD (FOR COMPACT DISC)

 

d.

Audiotape (FOR REEL-TO-REEL TAPE)

 

e.

MP3 (FOR COMPUTER FILE IN THIS FORMAT)

Brahms, Johannes. "Tragic Overture, Op. 81." Great Composers: Brahms. Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. Time-Life Music, 1988. CD.

Film or Video recording

1.

BEGIN WITH THE TITLE, WHICH SHOULD BE UNDERLINED AND FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

2.

INCLUDE THE ABBREVIATION DIR FOR DIRECTOR (Dir) AND THE NAME OF THE DIRECTOR, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD. YOU MAY INCLUDE OTHER INFORMATION THAT SEEMS TO BE RELEVANT, SUCH AS THE ACTORS IN THE FILM, OR THE NAME OF THE SCREENWRITER, BETWEEN THE TITLE AND THE INFORMATION ABOUT THE DISTRIBUTOR.

 

3.

GIVE THE FORMAT IN WHICH YOU ACCESSED THE RECORDING, FOR EXAMPLE, DVD OR Videocassette, OR MPEG, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

4.

FOLLOWING THIS, PUT IN THE NAME OF THE DISTRIBUTOR OR PRODUCTION COMPANY WHICH WAS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE FILM, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

5.

NOTE: IF YOU ARE CITING THIS FILM BECAUSE OF THE PART A PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL PLAYED IN IT, YOU MAY GIVE THAT PERSONS NAME FIRST. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU WERE PREPARING A RESEARCH PROJECT ABOUT THE FILMS OF ALFRED HITCHCOCK, YOU WOULD PROVIDE HIS NAME BEFORE THE NAME OF THE FIILM.

The Incredibles

Television or radio broadcast

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1.

BEGIN WITH THE TITLE OF THE EPISODE OR SEGMENT, IF AVAILABLE, ENDING WITH A PERIOD, AND ENCLOSED IN QUOTATION MARKS.

 

2.

FOLLOW WITH THE TITLE OF THE PROGRAM, UNDERLINED, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

3.

FOLLOW WITH THE TITLE OF THE SERIES, IF THERE IS ONE. DO NOT UNDERLINE THIS OR ENCLOSE IT IN QUOTATIONS. END WITH A PERIOD.

 

4.

INCLUDE THE NAME OF THE NETWORK. WRITE OUT THE NAME OF A CABLE NETWORK. END WITH A PERIOD.

 

5.

FOLLOW WITH THE CALL NUMBERS OF THE BROADCAST STATION, IF APPROPRIATE, FOLLOWED BY A COMMA.

 

6.

FOLLOW WITH THE CITY OF THE LOCAL STATION, IF GIVEN, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

 

7.

END WITH THE DATE OF THE BROADCAST, FOLLOWED BY A PERIOD.

Here are two examples:

"Pearl Harbor: Looking Back." History Lives! The History Channel. 15 Mar. 2004.

"A Visit to the White House." 60 Minutes. CBS. WCBS, New York. 10 Apr. 2005.

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For Internet-Based Sources

In general, you will need to follow the steps outlined below. Some of the items listed will not be available for all sources, but you should include as many of them as possible. See the individual examples for different kinds of sources, but always try to follow this pattern. If any of the items listed are unavailable, simply leave them out. Follow every item with a period, unless the directions tell you otherwise.

A citation for an Internet-based source in its most simple form will look something like this:

Author’s name. "Title of the document." Information about electronic publication. Access information.

IMPORTANT: Always print a hard copy of an Internet-based source that you are using. Some of the information you will need to cite your source will be printed in the upper and lower margins of the page.

1.

GIVE THE NAME OF THE AUTHOR, IF AVAILABLE, ACCORDING TO THE DIRECTIONS FOR PRINT MATERIALS. INCLUDE THE DESIGNATION ed FOR EDITOR IF NECESSARY.

 

2.

GIVE THE TITLE OF THE ARTICLE OR INDIVIDUAL PAGE OR ENTRY, ENCLOSED IN QUOTATION MARKS.

 

3.

GIVE THE TITLE OF THE INTERNET SITE, OR, IF THE PAGE IS A PERSONAL WEBSITE, USE A DESCRIPTION, SUCH AS Home page OR Weblog. UNDERLINE THIS TITLE.

 

4.

GIVE THE NAME OF THE EDITOR OF THE WEBSITE, IF PROVIDED.

 

5.

GIVE THE DATE OF THE ELECTRONIC PUBLICATION, OR THE DATE THE PAGE WAS POSTED, IF PROVIDED.

 

6.

IF THE SOURCE IS FROM A SUBSCRIPTION SERVICE, PUT THE NAME OF THE SERVICE HERE.

 

7.

IF THE SOURCE IS FROM A DESIGNATED LOCATION, PUT THAT LOCATION HERE. (FOR EXAMPLE, IF THE WEBSITE IS TITLED Public Library, THIS IS THE PLACE TO PUT THE LOCATION OF THAT LIBRARY.

 

8.

GIVE THE NAME OF ANY ORGANIZATION OR INSTITUTION (SUCH AS A UNIVERSITY) THAT IS THE SPONSOR OF THIS SITE.

 

9.

GIVE THE DATE ON WHICH YOU ACCESSED THIS SITE.

 

10.

GIVE THE URL (INTERNET ADDRESS) OF THE PAGE YOU ARE CITING.

 

a.

IF THE URL IS TOO LONG TO INCLUDE, PROVIDE THE URL FOR THE MAIN PAGE OF THE SITE (FOLLOWED BY THE SEQUENCE OF LINKS YOU FOLLOWED TO REACH THE PAGE IN QUESTION) OR THE ADDRESS OF THE WEBSITES SEARCH PAGE (FOLLOWED BY THE WORD Keyword: AND THE SEARCH TERMS YOU USED TO REACH THE PAGE IN QUESTION.) ENCLOSE THE URL IN ARROW BRACKETS.

 

b.

IF YOU CAN INCLUDE THE ENTIRE URL BUT IT IS TOO LONG TO FIT ON ONE LINE, DO NOT INSERT A HYPEN OR OTHER CHARACTER, BUT INSERT A SPACE AFTER A FORWARD SLASH (/) TO FORCE A LINE-BREAK.

 

c.

ALWAYS INCLUDE THE PROTOCOL THAT IS PART OF THE URL: HTTP, FTP, TELNET, NEWS.

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Website

PBS.org

Webpage on a Website

"College of Education and Human Services." Montclair State University. 2005. 14 Apr. 2005. <http://cehs.montclair.edu.>.

Personal website or Weblog (blog)

McKellen, Ian. Weblog. 2005. 14 Apr. 2005. <http://www.mckellen.com/>.

Periodical article online

Boehlert. Eric. "Indecency Wars." Salon.com. 14 Apr 2005. 3 pp. 10 May 2005. <http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2005/04/14/ fcc_and_indecency/index.html>.

Library Subscription Service

"Junk Food in Schools." Issues and Controversies 29 Mar. 2002. Facts.com. Fair Lawn High School Library. 8 Feb. 2005. <http://www.2facts.com/ICOF/Search/i0700740.asp>.

Article in an online newspaper

"Rudolph Pleads Guilty." Washington Post. 14 Apr. 2005. 16 Apr. 2005. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A49309-2005Apr13.html>.

Review of a book

Amazon.com. "Ellen Foster." Rev. of Ellen Foster, by Kaye Gibbons. Amazon.com. 12 Apr. 2005. <http://www.amazon.com> Keyword: ellen foster.

Photograph Online

Peticolas, Jane Pitford Braddock. View from Monticello Looking Towards Charlottesville. 1827. Library of Congress. Life and Labor at Monticello. 1 Dec. 2000. 9 Aug. 2004. <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/ jefferson/images/vc8a.jpg.>.

Map Online

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"Fair Lawn, NJ 07410-2155." Yahoo! Maps. Yahoo! 14 Apr. 2005. <http://maps.yahoo.com/>. Search: 14-00 Berdan Ave. 07410.

Personal Subscription Service

"Cleveland." Travel and Tourism. 16 July 2003. America Online. 10 Dec. 2004. Path: U.S.; Cities.

E-mail

1.

BEGIN WITH THE NAME OF THE WRITER OF THE E-MAIL.

 

2.

GIVE THE TITLE OF THE E-MAIL, TAKEN FROM THE SUBJECT LINE, ENCLOSED IN QUOTATION MARKS.

 

3.

GIVE A DESCRIPTION OF THE MESSAGE THAT INCLUDES THE NAME OF PERSON THE E-MAIL WAS SENT TO.

 

4.

GIVE THE DATE OF THE MESSAGE.

Denver, Herbert R. "Accessing information online." E-mail to Jennifer Starrod. 8 Oct. 2003.

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References in Text

1. You will include in your parentheses the first name of the author whose work you are using, followed by a space, and then the number of the page on which you found the information.

 

2. If your paragraph included information from more than one page in the source, provide the range of pages.

 

3. Put the period at the end of the sentence after the closing parentheses of the citation.

 

4. If your citation appears in the middle of a paragraph or sentence, place it after any closing quotation marks, and before a comma or other punctuation.

For any source with an author's name given

GIVE THE AUTHOR

'S LAST NAME, OR NAMES, AS IT APPEARS ON YOUR WORKS CITED PAGE.

(Mendel 16)

or (Mendel 16-18)

For any source with no author's name given

GIVE THE FIRST WORD IN THE TITLE

, EITHER IN QUOTATIONS OR UNDERLINED, AS IT APPEARS ON YOUR WORKS CITED PAGE.

("Animation" 16-20)

or (CNN.com)

If you have two titles that are similar, give enough of the title to tell them apart.

("Diabetes Today" 18)

and "(Diabetes Treatment 45")

If your source is in a multivolume work, like an encyclopedia, include the volume number before the page number.

("Giraffes" 8:67-70)

If you have used two or more works by the same author, include the first word of the title of the source in your citation as well. Follow the author's name with a comma, and underline the title.

(Birman, Estuaries 56)

and (Birman, Deserts 90-98)

If your source has no page numbers or other designations, as a webpage would have no page numbers, leave it out and use what you have.

(McKellen)

and ("College")

Remember: Keep printouts of all webpages or other Internet-based sources, as well as photocopies, if available, of any print sources you have used. Your teacher has the right at all times and for all assignments to ask you to show the sources you have used for your research.